What does amenity horticulture mean

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Apply Now. This programme will introduce students to amenity plant and garden knowledge and care, plant and soil science, amenity garden tool use and care, weed and plant pest control, and amenity lawn care. Over the semester students will take a look at amenity place and garden knowledge and care; plant and soil science; amenity garden tool use and care; weed and plant pest control; and amenity lawn care. Study at Wintec is designed to reflect the industry graduates will be working in. This programme is hands-on, where students will put what they learn into practice and assist the Hamilton Gardens' team of gardeners. Join us for this workshop where we will help you discover career and study options, find out what to expect when returning to study, learn about finance options, and how you can get started.

  • What will the new Amenity Standard mean for landscape maintenance professionals?
  • Parks, Horticulture and Grounds Maintenance
  • Environmental Horticulture
  • Level 2 Apprenticeship – Horticulture (Amenity and Landscape)
  • What does Horticulture mean? 13 Things (2021) You Ought To Know
  • Teagasc College of Amenity Horticulture
  • Horticulture Sector
WATCH RELATED VIDEO: A Career in Horticulture: Make a Living Growing Plants

What will the new Amenity Standard mean for landscape maintenance professionals?

The term horticulture is often defined as the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers or ornamental plants. It is reseached and discussed at length within the context of horticulture as a science and technology focused on the role of horticulture in crop production Tigchelaar and Foley,However it is critical that we look at the other side of horticulture -- the art of horticulture, and the role it plays in human well-being.

Going to the dictionary, we see that horticulture is derived from the root words Hortus , a garden, and cultura for which the dictionary refers us to the word culture. Under culture we find: cultivation of the soil; the development, improvement or refinement of the mind, emotions, interests, manners, tastes, etc.

In effect, we have put blinders on the study and application of horticulture for human life quality. It is the purpose of this chapter to explore the implications of combining hortus with the other definitions of culture Taking into consideration the traditional definition of horticulture, the above alternatives and the current research into people-plant interaction, we might consider as a comprehensive definition:.

To understand and justify this broadened definition of horticulture, we must look at the research of individuals from a number of different disciplines -- environmental psychology, landscape architecture, social ecology, anthropology, sociology, geography, communications and forestry, as well as horticulture. Most of the relevant studies have been conducted to understand peoples' responses to and need for natural versus urban or man-made environments. While many people take the terms nature or natural to imply total lack of interference by man, in most developed countries, it is impossible to identify such an environment.

Even our wilderness areas have been influenced by forestry activities, man-made fires or the man-controlled lack of fires , access roads and physical amenities supplied for recreational pursuits.

Researchers reporting on the role of nature or nearby nature in influencing people are most often referring to vegetation; however, water and non-domesticated animals also may play a role. Kaplan,In writing on the creation of an ecologically sound economic system as a long-range undertaking beyond the scope of individuals or communities, Dobb expresses the need for:. Gardeners do not visit nature, worship, then withdraw quietly; they occupy it; get their hands dirty.

Moreover gardeners embrace their dilemma: they accept that they cannot get what they want without also doing what the garden wants. No matter how hard they try, they cannot force cherry trees to bear pumpkins The backyard dilemma that the adept gardener somehow manages to resolve year in and year out parallels the global dilemma that stumps our species today: coaxing what people desire from nature without violating its integrity.

And that is why Michael Pollan, in his wise and eloquent book Second Nature: a Gardener's Education recommends garden tours rather than wilderness trips to those people who seek to understand the present position of human beings in the grand scheme of things. The garden throughout the history and tradition of Western Civilization has served as a pivotal location for change -- the Garden of Eden, the Garden of Gethsemane, the monastic gardens leading into the Renaissance.

To facilitate a review of current research, I have attempted to divide the information into four categories:. Horticulture is, by its very nature, pragmatic and applied, so every effort will be made to show the significance of our current knowledge to daily life. The simplest theories, the overload and arousal theories, maintain that in the modern world, we are bombarded constantly with so much noise, movement and visual complexity that our surroundings can overwhelm our senses and lead to damaging levels of psychological and physiological excitement.

Environments dominated by plants, on the other hand, are less complex and have patterns that reduce arousal and, therefore, reduce our feelings of stress.

Another theory maintains that people's responses to plants are a result of their early learning experiences or the cultures in which they were raised. According to this theory, those individuals, for example, who grow up in western Texas will have a more positive attitude toward flat lands with sparse, natural vegetation and cultivated crops, such as sorghum and cotton, than someone from the mountains of Virginia.

Along the same line, this theory could be used to explain why Americans seem to prefer foundation plantings in their front yards even though the style of architecture has changed, and these plants are no longer needed to hide unattractive foundations; or why Americans desire broad expanses of lawn that urban water systems cannot readily maintain.

According to Ulrich, this theory also holds that modern, Western cultures condition people to like nature and plants and to have negative feelings about cities. However, this theory does not take into account the similarities in responses to nature found among people from different geographical and cultural backgrounds, or even those from different historical periods. The final theory maintains that our responses to plants are a result of evolution ; that is, since we evolved in environments comprised primarily of plants, we have a psychological and physiological response to them.

This evolutionary response is seen in an unlearned tendency to pay attention and respond positively to certain combinations of plants and other natural elements, such as water and stone. The most positive types of responses researchers found have been to the settings resembling those most favorable to survival for early humans. For example, one researcher has linked preference for certain tree forms to a high probability of finding food and water in nature near similarly shaped trees Orians,Balling and Falk interpret their research with individuals from elementary school through senior citizens as providing limited support for the hypothesis of an evolutionary preference for savanna-like settings.

Another researcher has shown that many features we particularly enjoy in the modern landscape, such as pathways that gently curve into the woods, were important to early man in terms of safety and exploration Kaplan and Kaplan,The Kaplans' evolutionary perspective links settings high in vegetation with intuitively and cognitively based preferences and restorative influences.

Ulrich puts forth a theory that the first level of response to natural scenes including vegetation is emotional. His "psychoevolutionary" perspective holds that this emotional response to nature is central to all subsequent thoughts, memory, meaning and behavior as related to human environments. In one study of college students under stress from an exam, views of plants increased positive feelings and reduced fear and anger Ulrich,Another of his studies documented physiological changes related to recovery from stress, including lower blood pressure and reduced muscle tension Ulrich and Simon,With a view of nature, recovery from stress was reported by physiological indicators within 4 to 6 minutes, indicating that even brief, visual contacts with plants, such as in urban tree plantings or office parks, might be valuable in restoration from mild, daily stress.

Steven Kaplan attributes the restorative value of participation with nature, particularly wilderness experiences, to the ability to fulfill several criteria:. Participation in restorative experiences meeting these criteria may be essentially passive sitting in a park or active maintaining a vegetable garden. A significant amount of research has been done with regard to experiences outside of populated areas where the participant hiker, camper, fisher is, in fact, simply passing through an environment controlled and directed by the U.

Forest Service. Few studies have been conducted in which participation requires the commitment of caring for the environment necessitated by gardening. However, the results of one study of the garden experience R. Kaplan, indicate that this model for restorative experiences would hold true. Each individual brings accumulated knowledge and history to the perception of an environment, thereby influencing how it is experienced. These perceptions are very difficult to identify and interpret as they may be on a subconscious level.

However, the Kaplans use an intermediate concept, preference , which is easy to elicit. By analyzing the patterns of preference within given populations it has been possible to learn about perceptions and categories of environments. These have been divided into two major types of environmental categories: those based on content, and those based on spatial configuration or arrangement.

Content categories are divided based on the amount and kind of human influence; for example, scenes dominated by buildings would form a discrete category as would scenes with vegetation and no buildings, roads or other human artifacts. Honeyman expanded on these studies to include scenes with buildings and plants. Her findings suggest that even in an urban environment with buildings, the presence of vegetation may produce greater restoration than settings without vegetation.

Preference judgments for categories based on spatial configuration or arrangement suggest an underlying criterion related to presumed possibilities for action, as well as potential limitations. In addition, spatial configuration categories can be distinguished in terms of openness with low differentiation predominately sky with farmland, bogs, marshes, etc. The "parkland" settings tend to be among the most highly preferred kinds of settings R.

Wise and Rosenberg measured both physiological response and aesthetic preference in a study on the role of nature decor in alleviating the symptoms of stress created by work-productivity demands in a simulated space station. The bulkhead of the simulated crew cabin had one of four scenes: savannah-like, mountain waterscape, hi-tech abstract or blank control. The mountain waterscape was the most aesthetically preferred and was highly successful in stimulating remembered and imagined outdoor experiences.

However, the savannah-like scene was significantly more effective in producing measurable physiological stress reduction.

The effect was just as strong for participants who expressed a preference for the scene as for those who disliked it. Particularly interesting is the fact that these results were found whether the subject was looking at the scene or not.

Studies related to the view from a window have given interesting results. Office workers with essentially no outside view were more likely to decorate their work spaces with scenes of nature than workers with windows Heerwagen and Orians,Several studies of interiors with windows have documented higher preference for views with vegetation or nature than alternatives that were "visually impoverished" Markus, ; Verderber,Another study Kaplan et al.

Particularly interesting in this study was the finding that simply the knowledge that the view was available was important to the employees, even if they did not take advantage of it. Health-related benefits of window views of vegetation have been documented in several studies. Moore reported that inmates who had a view of nearby farmlands and forests had fewer sick call reports than those with a view of the prison yard. West found a lower frequency of stress symptoms, such as headaches, among inmates with natural views than those with views of buildings and prison walls.

In a study of gall bladder surgery patients, Ulrich reported shorter, post-operative hospital stays, fewer potent pain drugs and fewer negative staff evaluations about patient conditions among those with a view of trees than those viewing a wall.

Horticulture has a long history as a treatment for individuals with a variety of diagnoses Watson and Burlingame, ; Relf,It has been used effectively in psychiatric hospitals since the late s McCandiliss,According to the American Horticultural Therapy Association, rehabilitation hospitals, facilities for developmentally disabled and geriatric centers have expanded significantly the use of horticulture in their treatment programs over the last 20 years.

Goals of the programs differ, but the basic premise behind horticultural therapy is that working with and around plants brings about positive psychological and physical changes that improve the quality of life for the individual.

While patient records document the effectiveness of this treatment, very little research has been conducted to understand why it is effective, or to quantify or compare the effectiveness. Theories have been put forth Relf, ; Shoemaker and Mattson, , but research is needed to establish a shared body of knowledge that would enhance the growth and impact of this professional area.

Work also is being done to evaluate the impact of active participation in gardening on general, physical health from the perspective of exercise. Taylor cites several sources to illustrate the physical value of gardening, reporting that you can burn as many calories in 45 minutes of gardening as in 30 minutes of aerobics.

One hour of weeding burns calories the same as walking or bicycling at a moderate pace , and manual push-mowing of the lawn burns calories per hour the same rate as playing tennis.

The views of nature have positive, physiological impacts on individuals whether or not they are consciously aware of them. These effects include lower blood pressure, reduced muscle tension and lower skin conductance. In addition, documentation shows that views through a window produce a reduction in need for medical treatment.

Finally, the availability of views of nature, whether or not individuals take advantage of the views, has been demonstrated to play a role in worker satisfaction. It would appear from this limited research that appropriate configuration of vegetation or stated horticulturally, a properly conceived landscape based on knowledge of human responses to plants can have positive physiological effects on individuals without their awareness and additional, positive psychological effects on people who are aware of them.

Actual participation, either active or passive, in a nature experience i. Implications for horticulturists. The type and configuration of the vegetation may influence its effectiveness in this regard. We need to better understand from both a health perspective and preference perspective what is most effective, then apply that knowledge to the selection of plants that can be sustained within the urban setting, while taking into consideration the increased constraints on water resources, available space and light, adequate soil conditions and decreased use of chemicals on plants.

Since it appears that physiological responses to vegetation can differ from aesthetic or culturally acquired preference responses, we need to pursue actively an understanding of a healthful landscape.

With sufficient information, horticulturists may play a role in altering culturally based or learned responses to vegetation by strongly re-enforcing more environmentally sustainable and humanly healthful landscapes. The production, installation and maintenance of appropriate landscapes will continue to be major goals of horticulture, but the actual plant content and configuration involved may be altered by further studies.

This would influence both production and marketing. The interaction and collective values of the members of the community give it the uniqueness that defines it as a community. A community may be formed from any grouping of people, thus a neighborhood, a retirement village, a school, an office complex or a housing project can become a community.

Parks, Horticulture and Grounds Maintenance

This Apprenticeship is a great way to kick-start your career in the Horticulture sector. An Apprenticeship is a great way to earn while you learn and get real industry experience with the support of our industry-expert Training Officers. An apprenticeship is not a course but a real job with a training programme attached. It is an ideal way of earning whilst you learn.

Considering the traditional definition of horticulture, the above alternatives access roads and physical amenities supplied for recreational pursuits.

Environmental Horticulture

Get in touch with us for career information. We are here from am to 5pm Monday to Friday, with the exception of Wednesday when we are here from 9. Our customer support phone-line and webchat are closed from noon on Wednesday 22 December to 8. A small number of staff will return on Wednesday 5 January to answer e-mails received during the break. CallEmail us with your career question. Back to top.

Level 2 Apprenticeship – Horticulture (Amenity and Landscape)

Background: Pesticides and their potential adverse health effects are of great concern and there is a dearth of knowledge regarding occupational exposure to pesticides among amenity horticulturalists. Objective: This study aims to measure occupational exposures to amenity horticuturalists using pesticides containing the active ingredients, glyphosate and fluroxypyr by urinary biomonitoring. Methods: A total of 40 work tasks involving glyphosate and fluroxypyr were surveyed over the period of June - OctoberWorkers used a variety of pesticide application methods; manual knapsack sprayers, controlled droplet applicators, pressurised lance applicators and boom sprayers.

There is an eye-watering variety of opportunities for a career in horticulture, because there are so many ways in which plants are involved in our lives What is horticulture?

What does Horticulture mean? 13 Things (2021) You Ought To Know

This programme is for anyone, both school-leavers and adults, who wish to gain qualifications which will enable them to work in areas such as landscaping, parks and gardens, sports turf or horticultural garden centres. Unemployed adults may be able to study the Routes to Success pathway, which means they may be entitled to an additional training payment and help with travel costs. What will I study? Entry to the Programme? How is it assessed?

Teagasc College of Amenity Horticulture

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading. Amenity horticulture may be managed by either public or private enterprises. Organisations can either be small or large. The way an organisation is structured is critical to efficient management. They might be highly pyramidal, with managers, department managers, area managers, one or two levels more, and general staff, or they may show a three level structure with a manager, area managers and staff. In recent times organisations have tended to simplify their structures, producing flatter profiles, with the aim to save on high cost managerial positions. Pyramidal structures are more common in big companies.

There are wonderful, lifelong careers to be had not only managing a garden, but also in the industries that support amenity horticulture.

Horticulture Sector

The College of Amenity Horticulture is located at the National Botanic Gardens , Glasnevin, Dublin, 5km north west of the city centre and is accessible by the 4, 9 and 83 buses. Having our college located in the National Botanic Gardens provides students with a unique training opportunity. There is a strong tradition of training at the National Botanic Gardens dating back toOur aim is to train students for employment in the amenity horticulture industry.


The Red Tractor logo is a familiar site for UK shoppers. Run by the NFU, it is the largest food standards scheme in the UK covering animal welfare, food safety, traceability and environmental protection. Developed by an external consultant, Steve Hewitt, The Amenity Standard sets quality levels which assurance schemes must reach to display the standard. The standard will assess each assurance scheme as a whole and not individual companies, using an external audit and certification process.

As the Horticulture Specialist at NVL, Belinda is responsible for plant sourcing, placing and horticultural support for our teams.


Amenity horticulture has a vital role to play in the future management of the environment. As custodians of both natural and developed landscapes, amenity horticulturists will be increasingly responsible for ensuring the Earth's resources are used in a responsible and sustainable manner. From amenity horticulturists who work in backyard gardens to those who contribute to the management of national parks covering thousands of hectares, the trend will be to promote and implement strategies that conserve soil, water, air and biodiversity for the benefit of future generations. The horticulture industry can be divided into two broad sectors: the production sector, which is largely involved with producing food crops, and the amenity sector, which is involved with growing plants for recreational or ornamental purposes. However, these should not be seen as clear-cut divisions. The boundaries defining the two sectors tend to vary from country to country and between horticultural institutions and employers.

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